Spatial temporal cluster analysis to enhance awareness of disease re-emergence on a global scale

The re-emergence of an infectious disease is dependent on social, political, behavioral, and disease-specific factors. Global disease surveillance is a requisite of early detection that facilitates coordinated interventions to these events. Novel informatics tools developed from publicly available data are constantly evolving with the incorporation of new data streams. Re-emerging Infectious Disease (RED) Alert is an open-source tool designed to help analysts develop a contextual framework when planning for future events, given what has occurred in the past.

January 25, 2018

Estimating spatial patterning of dietary behaviors using grocery transaction data

Unhealthy diet is becoming the most important preventable cause of chronic disease burden. Dietary patterns vary across neighborhoods as a function of policy, marketing, social support, economy, and the commercial food environment. Assessment of community-specific response to these socio-ecological factors is critical for the development and evaluation policy interventions and identification of nutrition inequality.

July 27, 2017

Zika Virus Speed and Direction: Reconstructing Zika Introduction in Brazil

Local transmission of Zika virus has been confirmed in 67 countries worldwide and in 46 countries or territories in the Americas. On February 1, 2016 the World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern due to the increase in microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil. Several countries issued travel warnings for pregnant women travelling to Zika-affected countries with Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and El Salvador advising against pregnancy.

August 07, 2017

Spatial analysis of SS population coverage based on emergency regional healthcare

SOS Médecins France (SOS Med) is the first private and permanent network of general practitioners providing emergency care in France. Besides Hospital emergency departments (HED), SOS Med is therefore a major source of data for detecting and measuring nearreal-time health phenomena. The emergency services provided by the SOS Med have been subject to important changes in the recent years. Their services are enriched by a medical consultation center together with extended working hours.

August 10, 2017

Spatio-Temporal Cluster Detection for Legionellosis using Multiple Patient Addresses

The Bureau of Communicable Disease (BCD) at the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene performs daily automated analyses using SaTScan to detect spatio-temporal clusters for 37 reportable diseases. Initially, we analyzed one address per patient, prioritizing home address if available. On September 25, 2015, a BCD investigator noticed two legionellosis cases with similar work addresses. A third case was identified in a nearby residential facility, and an investigation was initiated to identify a common exposure source.

August 10, 2017

Support Vector Subset Scan for Spatial Outbreak Detection

Neill’s fast subset scan2 detects significant spatial patterns of disease by efficiently maximizing a log-likelihood ratio statistic over subsets of locations, but may result in patterns that are not spatially compact. The penalized fast subset scan (PFSS)3 provides a flexible framework for adding soft constraints to the fast subset scan, rewarding or penalizing inclusion of individual points into a cluster with additive point-specific penalty terms.

August 10, 2017

Assessing local risk factors of Beijing Hand-Foot- Mouth Disease in China

Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness and the drivers of HFMD incidence are still not clear [1]. In mainland China, continuing and increasing HFMD epidemics have been recorded since 2008, causing millions of infections and hundreds of deaths annually. In Beijing, 28,667 cases were reported in 2015 and the incidence was 133.28/100,000. The variations in Beijing HFMD epidemics over population, space, and time that have been revealed [2] emphasize the need for further research about risk factors of HFMD occurrence.

May 26, 2017

What do we know about the behavior of animal rabies in Chile through the last years?

Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus from the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. Worldwide distributed, control of rabies has been considered to be particularly amenable to a “One Health” strategy (1). In Chile, rabies was considered endemic in domestic dog population until the late 1960s, when a surveillance program was established, decreasing the number of human cases related to canine variants until the year 1972 (2). Rabies is recognized as a endemic infection in chiropterans of Chile and prompted the surveillance of the agent in this and other species (3).

August 26, 2017

Application of GIS for Optimization of Epidemiological Monitoring

Technology that combines traditional manipulations with databases and complete visualization of geographic (spatial) analysis employing maps has been developed in order to explore the possibilities for Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to be used in sanitary and epidemiological surveillance system based on the analysis of morbidity and identification of influence of hazardous chemical environmental factors on human health. 

June 01, 2017

Assessing the distribution and drivers of vaccine hesitancy using medical claims data

In the United States, surveillance of vaccine uptake for childhood infections is limited in scope and spatial resolution. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) - the gold standard tool for monitoring vaccine uptake among children aged 19-35 months - is typically constrained to producing coarse state-level estimates. In recent years, vaccine hesitancy (i.e., a desire to delay or refuse vaccination, despite availability of vaccination services) has resurged in the United States, challenging the maintenance of herd immunity.

June 03, 2017

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