The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccination effectiveness

The test-negative design is a variation of the case-control study, in which patients are enrolled in outpatient clinics (and/or hospitals) based on a clinical case definition such as influenza-like illness (ILI). Patients are then tested for influenza virus, and VE is estimated from the odds ratio comparing the odds of vaccination among patients testing positive for influenza versus those testing negative, adjusting for potential confounding factors. The design leverages existing disease surveillance networks and as a result, studies using it are increasingly being reported.

August 20, 2017

ICD-9 code reporting among patients from the Minnesota SARI surveillance program

The ICD-9 codes for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and pneumonia/influenza (P&I) are commonly used in ARI surveillance; however, few studies evaluate the accuracy of these codes or the importance of ICD-9 position. We reviewed ICD-9 codes reported among patients identified through severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance to compare medical record documentation with medical coding and evaluated ICD-9 codes assigned to patients with influenza detections. 

July 06, 2017

Identifying Key Transmission Route of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) in Live Poultry Markets

Live poultry markets (LPMs) continue to operate in many Asian countries. Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are often endemic in the poultry, and LPM presents the opportunity for human-poultry interactions and potential human infections with avian influenza viruses.

July 06, 2017

Immune response and distribution of antigen in chickens after infection LPAIV (H4N6)

Influenza is a serious problem for the health of people, animals and birds. Therefore, comprehensive study of influenza virus, its natural reservoir, pathogenesis and immune response will provide further opportunity to ensure protection for animals, birds and people from this infection. 


To study the immune response in chicken on the administration of LPAIV isolated from the natural reservoir. 

July 06, 2017

Utility of Natural Language Processing for Clinical Quality Measures Reporting

Clinical quality measures (CQMs) are tools that help measure and track the quality of health care services. Measuring and reporting CQMs helps to ensure that our health care system is delivering effective, safe, efficient, patient-centered, equitable, and timely care. The CQM for influenza immunization measures the percentage of patients aged 6 months and older seen for a visit between October 1 and March 31 who received (or reports previous receipt of) an influenza immunization.

August 26, 2017

Influenza study of backyard animals in Georgia

Aquatic birds are the main reservoirs of influenza viruses, however, pigs represent an essential host in virus ecology as they are susceptible to both avian and human influenza viruses. Circulating zoonotic influenza (A/H7N9, A/H5N1, and A/H3N2v) viruses could mutate into forms easily transmissible from human-to-human and become a public health concern. Georgia is located along routes used by migrating birds where different species of aquatic birds are found. In 2006, highly pathogenic influenza virus A/H5N1 was detected in two wild swans in Adjara (western Georgia).

July 07, 2017

Utility of Nontraditional Data Sources for Early Detection of Influenza

 Influenza surveillance is conducted through a complex network of laboratory and epidemiologic systems essential for estimating population burden of disease, selecting influenza vaccine viruses, and detecting novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential (1). Influenza surveillance faces numerous challenges, such as constantly changing influenza viruses, substantial variability in the number of affected people and the severity of disease, nonspecific symptoms, and need for laboratory testing to confirm diagnosis.

August 26, 2017

Influenza-Associated Pediatric Deaths in the United States, 2010–2015

Community influenza infection rates are highest among children. In children, influenza can cause severe illness and complications including, respiratory failure and death. Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥ 6 months. In 2004, influenza- associated deaths in children became a notifiable condition. 


To characterize and describe influenza-associated pediatric deaths in the United States over five influenza seasons, 2010–11 through 2014–15. 

July 07, 2017

Interpreting specific and general respiratory indicators in syndromic surveillance

Public Health England (PHE) uses syndromic surveillance systems to monitor for seasonal increases in respiratory illness. Respiratory illnesses create a considerable burden on health care services and therefore identifying the timing and intensity of peaks of activity is important for public health decision-making. Furthermore, identifying the incidence of specific respiratory pathogens circulating in the community is essential for targeting public health interventions e.g. vaccination.

July 10, 2017

Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boars of Northern Ukraine

Domestic swine have been viewed as important for the adaptation and spillover of IA from birds into human populations as they are sensitive to both avian and mammalian (including human) influenza viruses [1]. However, in much of Eurasia and North America wild swine are geographically widespread, abundant and often come in close contact with humans in rural and agricultural settings. Until recently, little attention has been paid to this as an alternate route for IA transmission to human and domestic populations and its significance is not clear.

July 11, 2017


Contact Us

NSSP Community of Practice



This website is supported by Cooperative Agreement # 6NU38OT000297-02-01 Strengthening Public Health Systems and Services through National Partnerships to Improve and Protect the Nation's Health between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on private websites.

Site created by Fusani Applications