Partnership in Surveillance: A Kerala model to Emerging Public Health Threats

Kerala is a small state in India, having a population of only 34 million (2011 census) but with excellent health indices, human development index and a worthy model of decentralised governance. Integrated Disease Surveillance Program, a centrally supported surveillance program, in place since 2006 and have carved its own niche among the best performing states, in India.

June 18, 2019

Power, Potential, and Pitfalls of Surveillance using Clinical Ancillary Services Data

Military service members and their families work and live around the world where both endemic and emerging infectious diseases are common. Timely infectious disease surveillance helps to inform medical and policy decisions which ensure mission readiness and beneficiary health.

June 18, 2019

Selection of Syndromes and Algorithms for Monitoring Bovine Laboratory Test Data

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is collaborating with epidemiologists of the US Dept. of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) to increase animal health surveillance capacity. CEAH monitors selected syndromic animal health indicators for stakeholder reporting. This project’s goal was to extend this capacity to bovine veterinary laboratory test accession data.


January 19, 2018

Surveillance of Human Papilloma Virus in the United States to Evaluate Vaccine Impact

Numerous studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer1. By 2007 two vaccines targeting HPV were available in the United States. Both vaccines have shown close to 100% efficacy against HPV types 16 and 18, the cause of 70% of all cervical cancers2. It is hypothesized that with routine vaccination the prevalence of HPV and HPV-associated cancers should decline3. A need exists for surveillance with national coverage2.

May 02, 2019

The Evolution of the WHO/NREVSS Influenza Surveillance System: The Challenges and Opportunities that Accompany Electronic Laboratory Data

The Influenza Division (ID) in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintains the WHO/NREVSS surveillance system, a network of laboratories in the U.S. that report influenza testing results. This system has seen many changes during the past 40 years, especially since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. This was due in large part to increased adoption of HL7 messaging via PHLIP. PHLIP data is detailed, standardized influenza testing information, reported in near real-time.

May 02, 2019

Under-ascertainment of Illness due to Influenza in Administrative Databases, a Population-based Record Linkage Study

Under-ascertainment of severe outcomes of influenza infections in administrative databases has long been recognised. After reviewing registered deaths following an influenza epidemic in 1847, William Farr, of the Registrar-General's Office, London, England, commented: ''the epidemic carried off more than 5,000 souls over and above the mortality of the season, the deaths referred to that cause [influenza] are only 1,157"[1].

May 02, 2019

Use of Laboratory Drug Sensitivity Tests and Prescription Practices in Malawi

Of the 13 million people in Malawi1 85% are rural and the country has high burden of under-five morbidity and mortality due to preventable infectious diseases. Respiratory, febrile and diarrhea diseases are the top 3 morbidity and mortality illnesses in most developing countries2. Acute medical care has greatly improved these conditions, but widespread and uncontrolled use of antibiotics threatens to reverse gains achieved so far. Drug sensitivity tests are a prerequisite to guide prescription practices.


May 02, 2019

Evaluating the use of syndromic surveillance for the detection of influenza-like illness in Salt Lake County, Utah

Salt Lake Valley Health Department uses syndromic surveillance to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) activity as part of a comprehensive influenza surveillance program that includes pathogen-specific surveillance, sentinel surveillance, school absenteeism and pneumonia, and influenza mortality. During the 2009 spring and fall waves of novel H1N1 influenza, sentinel surveillance became increasingly burdensome for both community clinics and Salt Lake Valley Health Department, and an accurate, more efficient method for ILI surveillance was needed.

June 17, 2019

Influenza messaging and interoperability: the PHLIP assistance team approach

An essential theme of the US Federal Health Information Technology Strategic Plan is interoperability and the ability to effectively exchange information using specific data and technical standards.1 In 2005, in an effort to accelerate the development of a national laboratory standards-based electronic data-sharing network, APHL and CDC collaborated to launch PHLIP.2 The goals of PHLIP include, but are not limited to, improving the quality of data exchanged, piloting sustainable architecture for laboratory data exchange, sending and receiving HL7 test results from states to CDC programs (v2

June 18, 2019

Temporo-spatial surveillance of influenza-like illness: preliminary results from the Idaho infectious disease reporting network

Current influenza-like illness (ILI) monitoring in Idaho is based on syndromic surveillance using laboratory data, combined with periodic person-to-person reports collected by Idaho state workers. This system relies on voluntary reporting.

June 20, 2019


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