As part of this surveillance study for Avian Influenza both active and passive surveillance samples were tested using PCR and also utilized to validate the LAMP method. Active surveillance samples include pathological material and tracheal and cloacal swabs from ill poultry, which were subsequently assessed for avian influenza during diagnosis, and birds collected by hunters. Passive surveillance included environmental samples such as sand and bird faeces. Active surveillance samples were taken mostly from poultry farms across Ukraine, where infected birds are required to be diagnosed by State Scientific Research Institute of Laboratory Diagnostics and Veterinary Sanitary Expertise (SSRILDVSE) by Ukraine Law. Passive surveillance samples were taken primarily during the annual bird migration season. Development of simple, sensitive, and cheap methods for diagnostics of avian influenza is a very important task for practical veterinary medicine. LAMP is one of such methods. The technique is based on isothermal amplification of nucleic acids. It does not require special conditions and equipment (PCR cyclers), therefore it is cheaper in comparison with PCR. Accurate diagnosis is necessary for determining the risk associated with avian influenza in Ukraine and along the Dnipro River during the migratory season.
The performance of comparative analysis of sensitivity and results of detection of avian influenza virus by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RT) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the nucleic acids (LAMP) was the main goal of the study.