Developing, Evaluating, and Disseminating Definitions for Syndromic Surveillance in Public Health Practice: A Guidance Document

This document, released February 18, 2019, focuses on several key areas related to syndrome definition creation, including the basics behind a syndrome definition, steps to build a syndrome, evaluation of a new (or old) definition, and dissemination.

February 19, 2019

Identifying Persons Who Inject Drugs in Medical Examiner Data in Maricopa County, AZ

The rate of drug overdose deaths in the United States has increased steadily since 2000. Injection drug use, a practice associated with infectious disease transmission, has likely increased along with this upward trend in drug overdoses. Injection drug use surveillance is difficult to conduct at a public health department because there are no specific Internal Classification of Diseases codes to identify this risk behavior in hospital discharge or vital registration data.

June 18, 2019

Maricopa County’s use of NSSP ESSENCE to detect cases during a hepatitis A outbreak

On 3/29/2017, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) received three reports of confirmed HAV infection from an onsite clinic at Campus A that assists individuals experiencing homelessness, a population at risk for HAV transmission. To identify the scope of the problem, the department initiated rapid HAV infection case detection using NSSP ESSENCE.

Objective:

January 19, 2018

Surveillance for Mass Gatherings: NCAA Final Four 2017 in Maricopa County, Arizona

Final Four-associated events culminated in four days of intense activity from March 31st through April 3rd, and added an estimated 400,000 visitors to Maricopa County's 4.2 million residents.

Objective:

To describe and present results for the enhanced epidemiologic surveillance system established during the 2017 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Men’s College Basketball Championship (Final Four) events.

January 21, 2018

Impact of the NSSP’s transition to ESSENCE on chief complaint field-based syndromes

In January 2017, the NSSP transitioned their BioSense analytical tools to Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE). The chief complaint field in BioSense 2.0 was a concatenation of the record's chief complaint, admission reason, triage notes, and diagnostic impression. Following the transition to ESSENCE, the chief complaint field was comprised of the first chief complaint entered or the first admission reason, if the chief complaint was blank.

January 21, 2018

Evaluation of an arboviral syndrome query used in Maricopa County, Arizona

Timely identification of arboviral disease is key to prevent transmission in the community, but traditional surveillance may take up to 14 days between specimen collection and health department notification. Arizona state and county health agencies began monitoring National Syndromic Surveillance Program BioSense 2.0 data for patients infected with West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), chikungunya, or dengue virus in August 2015. Zika virus was added in April 2016.

January 19, 2018

Syndromic Surveillance Climate and Health Guidance Document

In general, data from public health surveillance can be used for short- and long-term planning and response through retrospective data analysis of trends over time or specific events. Combining health outcome data (e.g., hospitalizations or deaths) with environmental and socio-demographic information also provides a more complete picture of most vulnerable populations. Using syndromic surveillance systems for climate and health surveillance offers the unique opportunity to help quantify and track in near-real time the burden of disease from climate and weather impacts.

September 19, 2017

Syndromic Surveillance for Arboviral Diseases in Arizona

Arizona reports an average of 116 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) each year, and in 2015, Arizona saw a reemergence of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. In addition, Arizona is at risk for importation of viruses such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika due to an abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in many parts of the state. Rapid identification of potential cases of arboviral disease (borne by mosquitoes and ticks) is critical to implementing appropriate public health responses.

February 27, 2018

Firearm Injury - Maricopa County Department of Public Health

This syndrome attempts to capture acute GSW hospital visits and was developed based on existing syndromes shared by the community of practice in this forum post: https://www.healthsurveillance.org/forums/Posts.aspx?topic=1452124
This syndrome attempts to capture acute GSW emergency department and inpatient visits

December 12, 2018

Injection Drug Use - Maricopa County Department of Public Health

This syndrome attempts to capture Opioid, Cocaine and Meth Injection Drug Use hospital visits. The syndrome was developed using NSSP ESSNECE and evaluated on Maricopa County emergency department and inpatient data. Fields used in ESSENCE include Admit Reason Combo, Cheif Complaint History and Discharge Diagnosis.

December 12, 2018

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